Fertility in Russia

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This page gives information of type fertility about the country Russia.
See all pages giving information on fertility for particular countries|See all pages giving information about Russia

Data sources

Some data on this page comes from the Human Fertility Database (website www.humanfertility.org) (data downloaded January 2014, last updated by HFD April 2012). The data collected by the Human Fertility Database is based on government data collection by the government of Russia. You can download the data yourself here. Details about the modalities of data collection are available here. Where available, we use HFD data because of its higher reliability.

Qualitative history of fertility-relevant events and trends

Key events

See Wikipedia:Abortion in Russia.

Year Event Postulated effects seen in abortion statistics
1920 Abortion was made legal by the Bolshevik government as part of their "Decree on Women's Healthcare" -- it was seen as a temporary necessity given that many women were not financially prepared to have kids because of the devastation caused by the war. No data available
1936 Abortion was made illegal because the leader, Joseph Stalin, wanted a larger population for greater national power. The law was unpopular. No data available
1955 Abortion was made legal again, shortly following Stalin's death in 1953. No data available
1993 Legal restrictions on sterilization were removed Decline in the abortion ratio from 1993 to 1994 -- the abortion ratio was quite high in 1992-1993 relative to what it was both earlier and later, suggesting that sterilization might have prevented further rise in the abortion ratio (note that the abortion rate was declining anyway, because the number of pregnancies overall was declining).
2011 Legal abortion was restricted to the first 12 weeks after pregnancy, with exception for abortion in the case of rape (22 weeks) and in case of medical necessity (any time prior to birth) No data available (too recent)

Trends in period fertility

Reliable data prior to 1959 is not available, so we concentrate on the trends from 1959 onward.

Time period Trend in fertility Some numbers Details
1959-1968 moderately paced decrease CBR decreased from 23.61 to 14.07
TFR decreased from 2.583 to 1.97
The starting point for the decrease may have been earlier (like 1955, when abortion was made legal again) but we don't have reliable data prior to 1959.
1968-1980 relative stability, also slight divergence between CBR and TFR CBR increased from 14.07 to 15.91 (peaking at 15.91 in 1978)
TFR decreased from 1.97 to 1.863
TFR and CBR both increased somewhat at the beginning of the period, then around 1973, TFR started declining whereas CBR continued to increase somewhat. Overall changes in both were minor.
1980-1987 modest increase CBR increased from 15.91 to 17.2
TFR increased from 1.863 to 2.229
1987-1999 rapid decrease CBR decreased from 17.2 to 8.32
TFR decreased from 2.229 to 1.158
1999-2010 modest increase CBR increased from 8.32 to 12.61
TFR increased from 1.158 to 1.569

Trends in cohort fertility

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Key quantitative metrics

Unless otherwise specified, data is from the Human Fertility Database, last updated April 2012.

The "Year" column below gives the period year for period measures, and the birth cohort year for cohort measures. With the exception of the tempo-adjusted total fertility rate, all latest period measures are for 2009. Latest cohort measures are 1960 and 1970, the former for the completed measures and the latter for the under-40 measures.

Metric Direct fertility measure, comparable with replacement fertility value of 2.1? Period measure or cohort measure? Most recent measurement Year Extreme values, along with year and source
crude birth rate (CBR) No Period 12.61 2010 Data available 1959-2010; maximum value 23.61 in 1959, minimum value 8.32 in 1999.
total fertility rate (TFR) Yes Period 1.569 2010 Data available 1959-2010; maximum value 2.583 in 1959, minimum value 1.158 in 1999
TFR40 Yes(ish) Period 1.538 2010 Data available 1959-2010; maximum value 2.467 in 1959, minimum value 1.146 in 1999
CBR proportions by birth order No Period birth orders 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (and more) (respectively): 0.505, 0.360, 0.097, 0.025, 0.013 2010 Data available 1959-2010
TFR proportions by birth order No Period birth orders 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (and more) (respectively): 0.504, 0.358, 0.099, 0.025, 0.014 2010 Data available 1959-2010
Completed cohort fertility Yes Cohort 1.849 1960 Data available for birth cohorts 1944-1960; maximum value 1.89 for 1949 cohort, minimum value 1.766 for 1947 cohort
CCF40 Yes(ish) Cohort 1.572 1970 Data available for birth cohorts 1944-1970; maximum value 1.876 for 1954 cohort, minimum value 1.572 for 1970 cohort
Mean age at birth No Period 27.6 2010 Data available 1959-2010; minimum value 24.63 in 1994, maximum value 28.19 in 1959
Mean age of childbearing for birth cohorts (CMAC) No Cohort 25.05 1960 Data available for birth cohorts 1944-1960; maximum value 26.28 for 1947 cohort, minimum value 25.05 for 1960 cohort
CMAC40 (mean age of childbearing till the age of 40 for birth cohorts) No Cohort 25.12 1970 Data available for birth cohorts 1944-1970; maximum value 26.07 in 1947, minimum value 24.6 in 1965
tempo-adjusted total fertility rate (adjTFR) Yes Period (with trend) 1.822 2009 Data available 1960-2009; maximum value 2.32 in 1962, minimum value 1.358 in 1993

Period fertility

Further information: period fertility in Russia


Year Crude birth rate (CBR) (births per 1000 people) CBR minus previous year's CBR Total fertility rate (TFR) (sum of all age-specific fertility rates), ballpark for replacement fertility is 2.1 TFR minus previous year's TFR TFR40 TFR40 minus previous year's TFR40
1959 23.61 2.583 2.467
1960 23.16 -0.45 2.556 -0.027 2.447 -0.02
1961 21.86 -1.3 2.458 -0.098 2.363 -0.084
1962 20.14 -1.72 2.34 -0.118 2.252 -0.111
1963 18.72 -1.42 2.283 -0.057 2.201 -0.051
1964 16.88 -1.84 2.16 -0.123 2.084 -0.117
1965 15.71 -1.17 2.087 -0.073 2.017 -0.067
1966 15.34 -0.37 2.098 0.011 2.032 0.015
1967 14.42 -0.92 2.006 -0.092 1.947 -0.085
1968 14.07 -0.35 1.97 -0.036 1.913 -0.034
1969 14.24 0.17 1.984 0.014 1.933 0.02
1970 14.61 0.37 1.995 0.011 1.947 0.014
1971 15.08 0.47 2.024 0.029 1.979 0.032
1972 15.3 0.22 2.027 0.003 1.982 0.003
1973 15.06 -0.24 1.962 -0.065 1.919 -0.063
1974 15.61 0.55 1.995 0.033 1.953 0.034
1975 15.71 0.1 1.971 -0.024 1.931 -0.022
1976 15.9 0.19 1.953 -0.018 1.915 -0.016
1977 15.86 -0.04 1.918 -0.035 1.884 -0.031
1978 15.91 0.05 1.899 -0.019 1.867 -0.017
1979 15.81 -0.1 1.865 -0.034 1.836 -0.031
1980 15.91 0.1 1.863 -0.002 1.837 0.001
1981 16.07 0.16 1.882 0.019 1.857 0.02
1982 16.63 0.56 1.956 0.074 1.931 0.074
1983 17.57 0.94 2.088 0.132 2.063 0.132
1984 16.97 -0.6 2.051 -0.037 2.027 -0.036
1985 16.61 -0.36 2.051 0 2.028 0.001
1986 17.25 0.64 2.177 0.126 2.152 0.124
1987 17.2 -0.05 2.229 0.052 2.202 0.05
1988 16.03 -1.17 2.142 -0.087 2.116 -0.086
1989 14.66 -1.37 2.018 -0.124 1.995 -0.121
1990 13.44 -1.22 1.894 -0.124 1.874 -0.121
1991 12.09 -1.35 1.733 -0.161 1.715 -0.159
1992 10.69 -1.4 1.549 -0.184 1.532 -0.183
1993 9.38 -1.31 1.37 -0.179 1.358 -0.174
1994 9.59 0.21 1.395 0.025 1.383 0.025
1995 9.27 -0.32 1.338 -0.057 1.327 -0.056
1996 8.88 -0.39 1.271 -0.067 1.259 -0.068
1997 8.59 -0.29 1.219 -0.052 1.208 -0.051
1998 8.76 0.17 1.233 0.014 1.221 0.013
1999 8.32 -0.44 1.158 -0.075 1.146 -0.075
2000 8.7 0.38 1.196 0.038 1.183 0.037
2001 9.05 0.35 1.224 0.028 1.211 0.028
2002 9.69 0.64 1.287 0.063 1.274 0.063
2003 10.22 0.53 1.333 0.046 1.318 0.044
2004 10.45 0.23 1.341 0.008 1.325 0.007
2005 10.18 -0.27 1.288 -0.053 1.271 -0.054
2006 10.39 0.21 1.296 0.008 1.278 0.007
2007 11.33 0.94 1.406 0.11 1.385 0.107
2008 12.08 0.75 1.494 0.088 1.469 0.084
2009 12.41 0.33 1.537 0.043 1.509 0.04
2010 12.61 0.2 1.569 0.032 1.538 0.029
Mean 14.1157692308 -0.2156862745 1.8023461538 -0.0198823529 1.7665576923 -0.0182156863
Median 14.86 -0.04 1.9355 -0.018 1.8985 -0.016
Standard deviation 3.8021290971 0.7335564188 0.3919091474 0.0737584292 0.3715297689 0.071963967
Slope for best linear fit (using linear regression) -0.1989567148 0.0187963801 -0.0220988645 0.0012877828 -0.0206610177 0.0011103167
Multiplier for best logarithmic fit (using linear regression on the logarithm) 0.9857656066 0.9873666048 0.9878851946


Completed fertility

Further information: completed fertility in Russia


Cohort Completed cohort fertility (CCF) CCF minus previous year's CCF CCF40 CCF40 minus previous year's CCF40
1944 1.815 1.791
1945 1.781 -0.034 1.757 -0.034
1946 1.836 0.055 1.811 0.054
1947 1.766 -0.07 1.743 -0.068
1948 1.784 0.018 1.764 0.021
1949 1.89 0.106 1.87 0.106
1950 1.854 -0.036 1.837 -0.033
1951 1.889 0.035 1.874 0.037
1952 1.876 -0.013 1.863 -0.011
1953 1.862 -0.014 1.85 -0.013
1954 1.887 0.025 1.876 0.026
1955 1.854 -0.033 1.842 -0.034
1956 1.845 -0.009 1.834 -0.008
1957 1.874 0.029 1.862 0.028
1958 1.862 -0.012 1.85 -0.012
1959 1.86 -0.002 1.847 -0.003
1960 1.849 -0.011 1.836 -0.011
1961 1.786 -0.05
1962 1.737 -0.049
1963 1.707 -0.03
1964 1.68 -0.027
1965 1.659 -0.021
1966 1.636 -0.023
1967 1.611 -0.025
1968 1.6 -0.011
1969 1.587 -0.013
1970 1.572 -0.015
Mean (1944-1960) 1.8461176471 0.002125 1.8298235294 0.0028125
Median (1944-1960) 1.854 -0.01 1.842 -0.0095
Standard deviation (1944-1960) 0.0383452773 0.041920361 0.0420077899 0.0415920165
Slope for best linear fit (using linear regression) (1944-1960) 0.0041568627 -0.0007058824 0.0050710784 -0.0008161765
Multiplier for best logarithmic fit (using linear regression on the logarithm) (1944-1960) 1.0022847828 1.0028122562


Other data on fertility

Other social and demographic indicators related to fertility